Thursday, October 1, 2009
Tuesday, September 29, 2009
Thursday, September 24, 2009
Tuesday, September 8, 2009
Friday, May 8, 2009
Deaton designed the house in 1963 as the “sculpture you could live in”. The house was Deaton’s only residential project that he would create in his lifetime. His motto was always “People aren’t angular so why should they live in rectangles?” This motto makes me believe that he was really after something with this notion. Unlike Frank Lloyd Wright, another architect in the same period of time, the same lines and angles are missing in Deaton’s Sculpture House. His house has not a single straight wall. This would be tricky for an ordinary designer, but luckily for Deaton his daughter overtook the interiors, designing the furniture as art pieces. Thus, the house is an art piece, with art pieces inside. When asked the question if architecture is art, the Sculptured House is full proof that it is. The only difference in art and architecture is that architecture can be contained. The containment of people is what makes this house fascinating. The way that it is not a perfect clamshell is unique. It is curved, so that the main glass façade is facing the most light. During the day the house is exposed to many different highlights. The bedrooms are along different sides of the house, and have different effects on the mood of the room. The master bedroom gets streaks of light throughout the day onto the floor and bed and makes the house become part of the bedroom. The same happens with the other bedroom on the opposite side of the house. The light shines onto the bed and the shadow on the curved wall spotlight the bed to look like it is a work of art. The light and shadow effects throughout the house make it easy to see why Deaton wanted this work of art to be his own. Unfortunately due to debt, Deaton never lived in the home. He never was able to see the interior finished. His daughter Charlee was commissioned to take over the interior project in 2000.
The house sits proud on top of Genesee mountain showing off its beauty to the world. Charles Deaton would be proud to look at his residential masterpiece and the changes it went through to be standing here today
Wednesday, May 6, 2009
Design is very important when it comes to community. The Disney Concert Hall is a great example of this. The building was very innovative being made out of titanium, yet they did not think of the community. The reflection off of the building created a heat island effect on the adjacent condominiums and caused the temperature to rise 15 degrees in some cases. Disney having the money and resources made the titanium more abrasive and dull. Since the incident, the concert hall has received much praise and made the city, “A major attractant and a cultural magnet for downtown Los Angeles” (Roth 600). The community has benefited from the concert hall and shows how one building can change many things.
Frank Gehry was very innovative when it came to designing the Guggenheim Museum. The government of Basque wanted a building that would “bring tourists and cultural venues to the heart of the city” (Roth 600). Gehry and his team usual used copper sheets, but due to health concerns had to come up with a new similar material. The result was the highly expensive but rare and durable titanium. The skin was applied to the building that “they fluttered and shimmered in the wind, contributing a special luster to the museum.” (Roth 600). The titanium although costly was very innovative in the design sense allowing for a new direction in design. The look received much popular acclaim and soon everyone wanted their own titanium covered Guggenheim.
A steward is someone who is actively concerned with the direction of the affairs of an organization . That to me can not only be someone but an element that is THE direction of the affairs of organization. In our studio project, we had to make a meditative/celebrative space for 9 graduate assistants. That room had to have organization and purpose. In all of the first years designs there was an element that brought organization and purpose to the room. In mine it rice paper removable panels that brought everything together. The panels gave direction into what was public and what was private. They gave light direction as well. During the day the panels would shine onto the floor and move the light into the private space, making the graduate student more curious to see what was over there. Design is all about organization of ideas, and one element can be the steward of design.
This word resounds with me deeply. All throughout my life, I have wanted to be authentic, as soon as something became popular or well known, suddenly it did not have much meaning to me as before. I never wanted my ideas to be like someone else’s. That is something that I feel has sat with me as being a first year designer, we were to look at precedents for all our work. The final product, the viewer would not even know was supposed to be the precedent. I never wanted my project to resemble anything anyone else had done before. I wanted all my ideas to be original and me; even if it received criticism at least it was mine and no one else’s. The deconstructvisim movement in design is very authentic. They moved away from previous thinking “suggesting that fundamentally a building exists as an isolated abstract phenomenon.” (Roth 600) The movement was “Described by one reviewer “They’ve tossed out every orderly precept of architecture since the Greeks and have prompted the most basic questions, starting with which end is up” (Roth quoting Cathleen McGuigan). The designs were new and they showed the structure as it was. Sometimes, it came down to that they were unable to make the building due to the computer aided designs. Either way, every designer has to come up with a design that is authentic and makes them different from everyone out there. Otherwise, we will all be stuck with the crap in the suburbs the plain, repetitive, unoriginal designs.
Throughout this year we have gone all the way from the beginning of design into history until precent day. We have gone back to the past to create new things for the future, and we have discarded the past in order to design for the future. These phenomenons have happened over and over again, and will probably continue until the end of time. As designers we have to know what makes us innovative and authentic enough to be a good designer. We are all stewards working in a specific community to make it a better designed world.
Marquise Cut Solitare Diamond
My Mom proudly wears this on her finger and her and my dad have been married for 31 years. I am mesmerized by the shape and sparkle. Just like their marrige:Beautiful.
An American tradition; sleek, curving, streamlined
Wednesday, April 15, 2009
I feel the word connection works better with this. In history class we must find connections among what happened in the past to where design is now. The history we learn can give a precedent to design ideas in the future. Thomas Jefferson used pantheon as a precedent for his design at Monticello. He also received inspiration from the domes in Rome to design his very own home. He looked to the past in order to move forward into the future.
Both Thomas Jefferson and Frank Lloyd Wright were looking to design something that defined American architecture. They both found these American roots in different ways. Thomas Jefferson went back to the Roman style of architecture but with his own unique changes to it. He received inspiration from the pantheon in Rome to build the pavilion at the University of Virginia with its U-shaped pavilion and the L-shaped Rotunda attached to it. He has the main building with arms stretching out in the land. It is as if the arms are attaching the pantheon looking building into the land like roots do a tree. The same holds true for his house Monticello. There is the main building with the arms stretching outwards. Frank Lloyd Wright, however, wanted to move away from anything that had been done before and, thus, came up with his own unique style that he felt we should go in American architecture. His design at Fallingwater has the house with cantilevered into the land. Instead of arms rooting itself into the ground his design is like the house is hovering over the water and the water is what is holding the building secure. Monticello and UVA was built onto the land, whereas Fallingwater was built into the land.
As designers we must all have a concept to start the design process. The Sculptured House by Charles Deaton, the concept he had for his house was “People aren’t people aren’t squares, so why should they live in squares?” He designed his own home first as a sculpture and then put in the floor plan. His work is livable art. I feel that his concept of creating a home that does not have any room with a straight wall fits humans more than the houses today. His work shows that form is important when designing. The Sculptured House also allows light to hit in the key areas of the house, where the panels of windows are and the less important features are in the back. This is just like art, the artist will highlight its most prominent features of a sculpture and hide the ones that are not.
At Fallingwater and Monticello we learned about different materials the designers used and how they define the designs. At Fallingwater, the concrete slabs are cantilevered above the natural stone of the land. Frank Lloyd Wright wanted to create a space that was built into the land instead of a house that was simply built onto the land. His creation of stone and the natural elements that make up Fallingwater makes it seem like the water is rushing right underneath the house and the house is one with the natural materials. In studio we were to research three different materials and find out how they were used, the cost, and availability of the materials. The materials I had were silk, glass block, and rice paper. All of the materials I had known prior to the research, but I found out a lot of different design ideas from them. I learned how silk is made by insects and takes a long process to make. The knowledge we have about different materials helps decision making easier, if the resource information is already known.
At Fallingwater, there is a lot of compression/release happening. The hallways are dark and narrow leading to the private areas of the house, and when a person finally gets to the bedroom they are let out into a very bright open room. This design innovation is used to distinguish different areas from one another. The dark hallways deter unwanted guests from the private areas, and the release in the open areas, makes the viewer feel more at ease in the space.
Wednesday, April 8, 2009
Craft is something to pay close attention to when designing a space. The care and time we put into the craft of our design really shows when it comes to the overall finished product. At falling water there was a craft issue during the construction process. The Kaufmann’s discussed the structure of the building with a group of engineers, who told the Kaufmann’s that the building would require additional support. Wright was outraged upon hearing of this, but the support was added and the result was added weight. Furthermore, the steel was laid to close together causing a weakening in the slab. Also no attention was given to the deflection that would occur when the scaffolding was removed. This minor craft error allowed the cantilevers to sag 10% when the scaffolding was removed. Kaufman Sr. and Wright would have many heated arguments over the issue but eventually the contractor was removed and construction continued. Over the years the cantilevers sagged more and more until it was deflected around 30% more than it was supposed to be. A group from the Western Pennsylvania Conservancy invested in restoring the cantilevers. They carefully removed the floor inserted steel rods into the concrete that pulled the concrete back to its intended position, and then replaced the floor. Had no one paid attention to craft of the building it might not still be around for us to appreciate and enjoy. I pay close attention to my craft in my projects, because if something is off it takes away from the beauty and enjoyment of the project. For my light project I made sure that my craft was impeccable so that everyone would enjoy it the way I did and not pay attention to errors instead.
The first years went on a trip to Monticello and Falling Water recently and viewed the works of late 19th century and early 20th century designers. I was fascinated by falling water and the use of Frank Lloyd Wright’s way of using a dark tight hall that leads to the private areas makes the viewer feel that this is a space that they are not supposed to be. The public areas are more open and airy feeling giving the viewer the feeling that this is where they can relax and are able to be. These open rooms are the living room and dining room as well as the open land surrounding the house. Technique
In design I feel that all designers have a technique to something that sets them apart from everyone else. Something that is original to them, and when viewing the work, the audience can tell who that piece belongs to. Frank Lloyd Wright designs broke away from the cookie-cutter houses of that time and went in a new direction. His prarie houses
Charles Deaton was a self taught architect and industrial engineer. He was born to a poor family in New Mexico in the time of the great depression. He moved to Colorado, and this is where he was thirty-four, and this is where he would live for the rest of his life. He did small jobs here and there, but his career did not take off until he got the architectural job at Central Bank and Trust in downtown Denver (sitation) Deaton invisioned the bank as a sculpture and created a plan based on that. This bank would be the precedent for his masterpiece. Another precedent for the Sculptured House, was his bank he created in 1961, the Wyoming National Bank in Casper. “The most distinctive feature was the banking-room pavilion expressed on the building's exterior. Looking something like a flying saucer in which petal-shaped wedges of concrete surround a pierced dome” (Citation)
Deaton designed the house in 1963 as the “house you could live in”. (citation) The house was Deaton’s only residential project that he would create in his lifetime. As mentioned earlier Deaton designed the house for him and his family to live in. Although due to financial trouble he would never be able to do so. His motto was always “People People aren’t angular so why should they live in rectangles?” The first step of the process was to anchor the precast pedestal piers into the bedrock with steel rods. The steel supports a welded cage of steel substructure that is covered with metal wire mesh. The concrete is then poured on top of the mesh and the final step was adding the protective Hypalon. “The Hypalon was infused with white pigment along with walnut shells that “create a textured appearance and added structural integrity due to their extreme hardness.” (Citation)
The house faced many problems over time due do various reasons. The estimated cost of the house when it was finished in 1966 was $100,000 and $120,000 to build. However, the interior still was not finished because Deaton ran out of money. The house sat vacant for quite a while, and Deaton sank further into financial debt due to faltering architectural business and a lawsuit on one of his buildings. To combat the debt he put the Scuptured house on the market in 1988 and did not sell until 1991 for $800,000 to Larry Polhill. Polhill, then spent 150,000 to blast the exterior clean, but the “house fell into disrepair after partying teens broke nearly every window” (citation) Polhill cut his losses and moved to California leaving the house to become inhabited by wild animals. The house was in serious consideration for being demolished. . By the late 1990s, the Sculptured House was one of the most endangered historic buildings in Colorado. Luckily, Polhill sold the house to John Huggins, who was extremely interested in the house. Huggins bought the house in 1999 at the cost of the land an estimated 1.3 million and put another 2 million into the interior of the house.
The interior designer would be no other than Deatons daughter Charlee Deaton and Husband Nicholas Antonopoulos, whom studied under Charles Deaton. Together they designed the interior and constructed another 5,000 square foot addition that Deaton himself had previously designed. The house was to be “a work of art” in itself the furniture was picked out to stand as art as well. “The pair selected brightly colored furniture by renowned modernist designers Warren Plattner, Eero Saarinen and George Nelson, as well as a purple ribbon chair by Pierre Paulin, an orange-lacquered credenza by Robert Loewy and a puzzle couch by Roberto Matta” (citation) Charlee felt her father was a minimalist so she chose exotic natural finishes and details that would not over power her fathers work. The watermelon-seed shaped beds and dining chairs were furniture that Charles Deaton designed and fit well in the house. The house is made up of long halls of windows and cutouts for rooms. The light effects that are in the house give the house even more character. The cutout in the master bath is in the shape of a cat eye that lets light glimmer off of the mosaic tile. The huge open span of the front of the house allows the viewer to look out off the mountain top of Genesee Mountain.
The interior was finally complete in 2000, and was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 2004. However,Charles Deaton never saw the interior completed. He died in 1996 before Huggins even bought the house.Huggins sold the house to Michael Dunahay in 2006, who purchased the house for $3.45 million. He was the first to ever actually occupy the home. Huggins never lived in the house he only used the house for social events. After nearly fifty years of remaining vacant the house is finally being used for its original purpose. Dunahay has no intention of ever selling the house.
When asked the question if architecture is art, the Sculptured House is full proof that it is. The house was based off a sculpture and is now livable art. The house sits proud on top of Genesee mountain showing off its beauty to the world. Charles Deaton would be proud to look at his residential masterpiece and the changes it went through to be standing here today.
Wednesday, April 1, 2009
In design there is always rotation from one source to the next. Everything goes in a continuous cycle that eventually starts back at the original design or source. In history we have been learning a lot about how history has shaped design and there was a rotation in design patterns. As we learned at the very beginning Rome and Greece shaped the world through their designs. They were the foundations for the different design patterns throughout the rest of the world from then on. After the American Revolution the Americans wanted to break away from the Roman style that Great Britain had adapted over the years, and instead go towards Greece in their designs. They wanted to revive the past in a different way thus starting a whole new rotation of thoughts. The Baltimore Cathedral revived the Grecian Ionic columns. The portico was “Supported by some of the most beautifully carved Grecian Ionic colums of the period.” (Roth 461) The Romans had borrowed from the Greeks and now that the Roman style of designing was being challenged the cycle was being started over again by the Americans. All designs have to go through a cycle where the designer must go back to their original source and start over reworking the idea further to make a better design for the customer.
There were a lot of movements going on in the 19th century, both physically and in design as well. People were relocating and moving due to the industrial revolution. Factories were being built and workers were needed everywhere. The urban growth was popular as well. People were moving from rural spaces out into the urban areas. This influx of people caused places like Paris to be rebuilt and reshaped to add order and for health reasons. The sewers were draining into the river where the town got the water from. “When Napoleon became emperor in 1852 he embarked on a rebuilding of the city of Paris” (Roth 491) the town was demolished and the new city went up housing parks and new sewers and it restructured the town to new architecture to house all the people and no longer be a health hazard. Another movement in design was the arts and crafts movement. “To create a fully and contemporary environment was the pivotal aim of the movement” (Massey 33) William Morris was obsessed with going back to the guilds and design without machines. He felt the Crystal palace and the objects in it were all bad design. He set out to reform the design standards. His reformation led to the arts and craft movement and was “fee of any attempt at deliberate copying” (Roth 493). Design can cause a movement across the world. Items seen in Paris may be reproduced in America. This movement of ideas is all about what makes the design revolution unique and inspiring. We all want to be inspired and inspire those around us with our designs.
Reflection to me is capturing light and mirroring it back to the viewer. In Versailles I the king’s goal of was to show off his power and having it all relate back to himself. He did this through the elaborate gardens and even more so in the hall of mirrors. The hall of mirrors reflects back the beauty of the outdoors and brings it indoors to command the space as explained by Roth “Windows face the gardens westward and banks of mirrors on the opposite walls reflect the light throughout the room” (Roth 419). This reflecting back of ideas also can be looking back on designs and seeing was wrong and correct about the project. Designs are never right the first time, and we must look back at our work and redo it until it is correct. That is what makes designers so successful. Is being able to look back at their work and recreate it into something new and innovative.
Source is going back to the origins of designs. I feel that source and rotation go hand in hand. In order for a rotation to occur there must be an original source. It is like a precedent in where it’s an initial idea where designs are built off of. In the 19th century the designers were reviving the past in their own unique ways. “Architects were turning increasingly to specific source models, in a wide variety of historical styles, resulting in revivals of Greek and Roman Classicalism.” (Roth 461) These sources made American design what it is today. In studio we were to find a natural object and design our wooden creation around it. I found a cherry blossom tree and designed a wood feature that would cast shadows all throughout the project. My source is what made me think about the different aspects of the design and how it correlated to my wood project.
Illumination is highlighting a feature of the design. It is all about creating the correct hierarchy of the space in order to make that object, color, space, really shine. Everything that makes up a space must have one selling feature that makes the space unique and special. This is what we as designers must do in order to create a successful design. Our projects in studio were to be illuminated by natural light. I created a “coral like” feature that had folding layers to capture the light and create shadows throughout the piece.
Friday, March 27, 2009
Once the Roman Empire ceased to exist, the people of that era were in total chaos. In the early Gothic Era there was a rise in Christianity that swept the western world because the church was the only safe orderly place left. The main goal of the Gothic period was to make order out of chaos. Churches were erected in the shape of crosses to bring heaven to earth through design. The center and usually the tallest crossing point of the church is where the two would meet and create centrality and order. Italy at this time was concerned with geometrical division as well. The church \people believed that the genetic code of the universe was in geometric shapes, and if the world ended at the beginning of the century, it would not be destroyed. All of the churches at this time used light to connect the world back to heaven through design. In all of the chaos, the church sought the keep the order through geometric shapes, light, and height.
In the Renaissance period they were even more obsessed with order and perfection. They chose to revive the ancient world in a Romanesque manner “in the manner of Rome” The question was though how do you legitimately and appropriately revive the past? They wanted to stick to the rules of Rome, but somehow change the designs. The dome at Santa Maria del Fiore was inspired by the pantheon only Brunelleschi wanted to he used a cloister vault. It had a steep pointed profile and was octagonal in shape. There was a thicker dome on the inside and a thinner one on the outside and the two were nested inside of each other connected by ribbed arches at each of the corners. This all began reviving the past.
After the Renaissance there was an intense need for something new that had never been done before. In order to this rules had to be broken and artistic creativity had to break out of the box. At the beginning of the seventeen century the same structural and static structures were pushed to the edge by the Baroque period. Baroque designs were elaborate, embellished, and complex. It was all about capturing movement in emotion in the work and further expanding design. The statue of David by Michelangelo in the Renaissance was standing there in thought, while Bernini’s David was captured in movement with intense expression on his face. After the Baroque period, there was a transition to Rococo architecture. This design was about light colors and the delicate, irregular curvilinear ornament captured in the design. This was partially due to the stuffy architecture of the chateau Versailles in France. Everyone was sick of the cramped interiors and wanted to feel at ease. The rococo architecture achieved this with the fluidity of the designs.
All the new architecture that arose after the fall of Rome was helpful in to deside was is legitimate in design. Do we keep it simple and to the rules or do we break the rules with elaborate details and colors. All of these designs gave way to what was about to happen in the next phase of architecture when technology pushes design further.
Wednesday, March 25, 2009
At the heart of all designs there is revision. No design is ever finished on the first try. Designers must constantly revise their project to make it better. The royal chateau at Versailles was originally a hunting lodge but it was revised to be bigger and bigger until the French Revolution. When it was built in 1624 the building was small in size, but in it was enlarged in 1631-1636. The chateau at that time had “Several geometric garden parterres laid out west of the chateau, defining an axis centered on the lodge and stretching westward into the landscape” (Roth 417) When Louis XIV came into total control of the building he ended up drastically changing the chateau even more after his minister of finance made his own chateau much more extensive than the kings. The king had his architects wrap a new building around the existing building and leave that untouched. The plan was to “celebrate the king, his rule, and his military victories through numerous allusions to Apollo.” (Roth 418) He also made the landscape more elaborate by adding more water features like pools, fountains and water basins. To further his extensive building the infamous Hall of Mirrors was added to the west façade to reflect the large outdoors into the massively decorated indoors. Every detail that was put into the revised building that is Versailles radiated the notion that all things were to come back to the most important feature; the king. The revising of the small hunting lodge into a large château is hard to imagine
In design it is very important to consider our audience when we are designing. After all, we are not designing for ourselves we are designing for the public. The designer has to follow what the customer wants in order for his or her design to be successful. In Versailles I explained over the revisions that took place again and again in order to achieve the king’s goal of showing his power and having it all relate back to himself. The town’s people were the audience, and since the king did not concern himself with the financial aspect of Versailles this caused the people to be in a crisis, which led to the French revolution. The time that it all takes place is important to consider as well for audience. Now that the French revolution is over, Versailles is overwhelmingly beautiful and extravagant. Although it was not appreciated as much back then, it is more than appreciated now. The hall of mirrors reflects back the beauty of the outdoors and brings it indoors to command the space as explained by Roth “Windows face the gardens westward and banks of mirrors on the opposite walls reflect the light throughout the room” (Roth 419) The viewer cannot help but be taken back by the glory of the space. Every aspect put into the glory of Versailles is in or reflected in that space.
Charter I believe is how a space is decorated to give it an appealing look. It is something that is added to a room that makes it a real stunning design. In the Baroque period in the seventeen century the apart from the chimney piece the ceiling was what gave a room character. The ceilings were decorated with plaster and “included such motifs as naturalistic fruit, foliage, curling flowers, putti, and animals.” (Blakemore 206) The ceilings were very elaborate works of art that drew the eye upward and were at such a delicate feature, that it was no wonder why they were on the ceiling. The rooms were overwhelming with the décor of the plaster designs. They were given character to places that normal ordinary people did not have. It shows wealth through the extensive detail put into the work.
Last week in Suzanne’s class we were to create a board that had a clear datum line. The Mossman building group that I was in, was commended on having a clear and successful datum line. It is an area that allowed the eye to understand what to read first and where to go from there on out. Our board had the groups pictures lined up along the datum line and on the datum line we included the title and group members. If there was no datum line, the project would not read as well and would not be as successful. Instead the eye would not know where to look first and make the board look less professional. As far as history is concerned I believe the line of reference could be that of thought and emotion. In the renaissance the world was concerned with thought and writing down all the rules of the ancient architecture and design. While in the Baroque time period it was all about breaking the rules and going towards emotion and movement. There is no datum line in Bernini’s work. His work had lots of movement, and the eye did not know where to go. The mind is constantly moving throughout his work, although this does not make his work unsuccessful, this is the way he wanted his work to be viewed.
During the seventeenth century there was a transition from baroque to rococo architecture. The Baroque architecture broke the rules and was more about “elaborate, embellished, and complex” and focused on decorative elements and deep colors (Roth 398). However, around the end of the seventeenth century there was a transition to Rococo, which had “the use of light colors and the delicate, irregular curvilinear ornament. This transition was partly due to Versailles, due to the cramped quarters that the court had to live in. When Louis XIV died the “nobles moved to Paris, where they erected spacious private houses [and] hotels” (Roth 430) This moving from Versailles to the western outskirts of the city is further explained by Roth “ these hotels were most often painted ivory, cream white, or in pale pastel tints and were paned with delicate frames formed of lacy tendrils and wisps of gilded ornament…the Rococo interiors must have felt like a breath of fresh air after the somber interiors of Versailles, loaded with heavy pilasters and entablatures.(Roth 430) The transition was more towards going back inside the box instead of breaking all of the rules of art. The transitions that happened back in the seventeenth century speak a lot of what happens in design. Many things can impact design to change it into something new. As designers we must be open to changing our designs with the design or rebelling against them to create our own transition into something new.
Friday, March 20, 2009
· Short History of the designer
· Precedent for the building
· Structure of the building
· What the building is used for now
· Reason for building
· Problems faced during construction
· Why it was almost torn down
· Problems faced over time
· Delight Form
· Decorative Materials
· Sculpture as art itself
· Different Names
· What the building has inspired today
· What the house brings to design versus history
Images will be as follows:
1. Interior Elevation (Pen on Bond/Vellum)
2. Exterior Elevation (Pencil and Pen)
3. Exterior Top View (Pen on bond)
4. Interior House Detail (Marker, Colored Pencil)
5. Exterior House Detail (Pen and Watercolor on Watercolor Paper)
6. First, Second, Third Level Floor Plan (Pencil and Pen on Vellum)
7. Exterior Perspective (Pen)
8. Exterior Perspective (Watercolor)
9. Interior Perspective (Pen and Color Pencil)
10. Interior Perspective –Stairs (Pencil)
The scale of each picture has not been decided yet.
I have a concern about finding how large the building is itself. I found pictures on plans and other media but as far as how the building is divided up in square footage is something I am having a hard time finding. Another is where to look for a section cut.
Thursday, March 19, 2009
Wednesday, March 18, 2009
In design there is a certain process to each person’s design. It starts off with a precedent then develops into a sketch model, which after a few revisions turns into the final product. For history we have been learning about the early renaissance architecture. I found that the process of “rebuilding” Rome to its former glory and one main focus was St. Peter’s. Donato Bramante was chosen to mark the spot where Saint Peter had been crucified. Bramante looked to Alberti for the ideal centralized church. “Alberti had used the Latin word templum … Bramante took Alberti literally, deriving his martyruim for Saint Peter … the result was Tempietto (little Temple) (Roth 372). The New Saint Peters however, was to be bigger than Constantine’s church, embodying the ideals of the new architecture and proclaiming the power of an invigorate Christianity while surpassing the achievement of pagan antiquity” (Roth 372) Bramante’s new process was to resemble the ancient pantheon but was higher. His plan was to again use geometric shapes (circles, squares, cubes hemispherical domes) to create a large church that “rivaled scale of the Romans (Roth 374) The rough design of the church was costly and the project split the church. Therefore, the project was temporarily halted. When resumed by Michaelangelo, the centralized plan was changed repeatly yet kept the sence of it. The proposal was to “Making one of the [arms] the entry by ending it in a huge colanaded temple front.” (Roth 375) After his death, the building would be resumed in the baroque period. The process of rebuilding Rome to its glory ended up taking a long time period, split the church and changed frequently. It shows us as designers that we must take in to account various issues that will arise in design. We must consider how we will deal with the problems and eventually create an outstanding design.
There is two different ways to think about the word perspective. The first is in drawings there are different perspectives to draw an item. If something is looked at straight on the picture would be in one point perspective. However, if there is a corner the picture would be in two point perspective. I also found that it can be a way that someone views architecture. The urban palazzi were a way to be perceived as being rich and affluent. Some of the buildings like Palazzo Medici were just the front of the building that was seen only on the front façade or from a one point perspective. However, at Palazzo Farnese paid for the open space and built a two point perspective, corner lot palazzo. The building was out in an open space and had a grand fountain in front to show they were a prominent family. The building was owned by Cardinal Farnese who “held enormous power in the Vatican” (Roth 378) The cardinal kept making bigger, hence making people perceive him as a wealthy and powerful man. How the site will be viewed and how it will look from various points are all important things to consider when designing a space.
This week more than others was especially hard to connect with history. All of these words I feel have a major role in design more so than anything else. Up and for most is that as designers we are professional in all of the work that we do. We must be sure to look the part and that our portfolio of work looks it as well. The portfolio contains our process up until our final piece of work. Furthermore, we must consider the different perspectives people will look at the design and have multi-angles of our work in our portfolio as well. Finally the designer must consider where the design will go and the periphery of that design. The design challenge is keeping inside of the periphery and working with that to achieve a top design.
Wednesday, March 4, 2009
So far in the semester in History, we have been learning a lot about porch, court, and hearth. Ever since the basic structure was outlined in ancient Egypt, the tripartite has been in effect. The porch is the entrance where one decides who gets to enter. Next is the court, which is the gathering place where people can meet to talk. Finally is the hearth where only a select few are allowed to go. In the acropolis in Greece, this arrangement is easy to point out. The porch is at the main entrance where Athena Nike’s temple sits above for news. The court is the wide open stretch of land that leads up to the hearth of the Parthenon. Ancient Greece was not the only one to have this arrangement, in present day homes, in which this outline is set up to section off rooms into private and public spaces.
This week in Suzanne’s class we focused on details of buildings. Details are element of design that makes the building unique. They are tiny elements that make the building recognizable by just seeing them. When we were given the assignment to draw details for Suzanne I chose to do the concrete wall facing on the Mossman Building. No other part of UNCG’s campus has this on the front of the building. It’s a small thing but on a larger scale it is what makes up the entire building.
In history we have been learning about the cathedrals during the Renaissance. The people were convinced that the world would come to an end, and the church was the only hopeful salvation. The cathedrals used geometric shapes that correlated with the genetic code of the universe, and if the world were to end the cathedrals wouldn’t be destroyed. This detail is incorporated into all the Cathedrals of that time period. Another detail that the church had was the ribbed vaulted ceilings. The ceilings were a series of triangles making up a square to hold up the cathedral’s roof. This detail was not only for delight but was symbolic of the church holding together the town, because without the church the towns would be sent into even bigger chaos.
Designers use plans to show the outline of a building that includes fully detailed setup of the building. The plans are not that interesting to look at, not to mention regular people would not know how to read them correctly. Luckily there are diagrams to show circulation patterns, function, the context, zoning, and other elements to help the consumer understand the layout of the design. These diagrams are nicer to look at as well. They can include colors, pictures and shapes that make it look more like a work of art, rather than a boring set of lines.
Composition is a key element to design, without, the design would be a mess of different pieces. Composition would be better to describe parts to a whole, considering different parts (details) make up a composition that in turn creates a whole. The details have to come together to create a unified piece of work. For instance, at Salisbury Cathedral there are many different elements coming together like the high ceilings at the crossing point of the crosses, versus the low span of the entire building. These elements come together by having the ribbed vaults connecting the two throughout the entire building making it into a glorious composition. The geometry in making the cathedrals was quite like Vitruvius did by connecting the proportions to the human body itself “Ideal systems of proportion, he observed, can be found in the perfect proportions of the human body” (Roth 359). At Amiens Robert first walked the measure of a man and made a fifty foot square, from there he used a series of crosses and angles to create the mammoth sized building. The connection between man and architecture is a beautiful way of connecting the details together to create a composition.
From what I have gathered so far in History, I feel like impression is all about how architecture affects us personally and how it carries with us throughout the remainder of our lives. It is how we perceive a building, and what the building tells us without the designer there to explain. The cathedrals were all about impression when they came in to take over when the Roman Empire fell away. The cathedrals were a safe haven to the town’s people and gave them a place to create “order out of the chaos”. The dynamic effect that the church had on the towns people both physically and spiritually created an impression on the way the world would go from then on. Once you enter through the doors of the gothic cathedrals it takes a hold of you with its beauty and epic height. Once one has visited the cathedrals, they will take that experience with them throughout the remainder of their lives. As present day designers, we all must have a way of impressing the client in our own unique ways. We want to have an effect on someone that carries with them throughout the lifetime and that they never want to forget.
Monday, March 2, 2009
Sunday, March 1, 2009
Not only were the designs archetypes for modern times, they were also prototypes for following civilizations. In ancient Mesopotamia the stepped ziggurat let into the pyramids in Egypt. The ziggurats purpose was to get physically and spiritually closer to god, and at the highest point the temple this would help them achieve this goal. Each individual ziggurat was built for a particular god, the ziggurat of Ur –Nammu was devoted to the moon god Nanna. The pyramids that the ancient Egyptians used were to immolate the same effect, to reach heavenward to the gods through structure. The Egyptians smoothed over the steps and had unique measurements to directly correlate with the suns location. The pyramids at Giza were used to celebrate the god Rah. The Egyptians believed in making their buildings last longer than they would because the afterlife was more important than the reality. They believed that their tombs were a passageway into the afterlife and who and what they brought with them would be how they lived for the rest of eternity. They made elaborate pyramids out of limited technology and materials that lasted for hundreds of centuries. The pharaohs would steal from existing structures to help make their pyramid larger and better. The bigger and better concept would carry on throughout the remainder of history to help build up our world with structures.
The ancient Egyptians also introduced the tripartite arrangement included in Hypostyle hall. This temples form was copied by the Greeks who incorporated it into major buildings in their cities. The porch, court, and hearth was an arrangement in which the porch was for deciding who was to enter, the hearth was for meeting and greeting, and the hearth was only for important people like priests. The basic outline that was established in ancient times carried throughout history into modern day homes and buildings. In the home there is the porch, living room and the bedroom. All decide who is worthy enough to be allowed in to the sacred hearth.
After the Greeks faded out the Romans came in to further develop the basic outline of architecture. The Romans used a hybrid of all the previous civilizations to create wonders out of concrete. Along with creating big buildings and cities, the Romans created other important architectural elements to reach heavenward. The invention of the “wu-wu” was the male form of saying that bigger was in fact better. The structures would be placed out in open areas for all to see in wonder at their glorious wu-wu. Arches were added later as the female form into design. They weren’t necessarily used for a passageway, but more of a symbol of success. Soon after the basilica in form became the prototype for churches. The churches were to create order out of chaos when the Roman Empire came to an end. The heaven on earth embodiment of churches was put into the architecture by line and form. The footprint was laid out in girth and in height with geometric precision, so if the earth ended the basic forms would help the church be the last thing standing.
The foundations unit thoroughly explained how history affects architecture in every single way. The prototypes laid down in ancient times are still in effect for current designers to receive inspiration from. Each civilization copied off of one other to improve the architecture and look of the world. All wanted to be better than the last, so height and form was key to showing power. Without the foundations of the ancient world, who knows where humans today would be.
Wednesday, February 25, 2009
In design I find this word to be similar to multi functional. As stated in previous entries, for a space to work it must have commodity, firmness, and delight. The commodity of a building is determined by those who use it. The basilica was used for “civic activities…a large covered space, where judges could hear cases and the public could listen” (Roth 257). However, around circa 300, the basilica would be forever changed into a place of Christian worship. The basic outline of the building was a duality; it was not only for one use alone now. Again Constantine changed the commodity of the building by making it into a churches gathering space. “St. Peters and other early churches were clearly derived from the great imperial basilicas, but additional modifications were necessitated by the special needs of Christian worship.” (Roth 282) The commodity changed so to must the others as well. The basilica had a certain way of working for both law and the church. Two completely different purposes, and yet came together to accommodate both under “one roof” so to speak.
Moment captures time in place and allows us to revisit whenever the need. Architecture or even design in general captures a moment in time to allow us to go back and see what life was like back then. A moment that is literally caught in time is that of Pompeii Italy. When Mount Vesuvius erupted the town was caught off guard and was completely covered by molten lava. When excavated the archeologists found the city beneath. The town gives much insight to what was occurring back in that time. It linked together so much of what was going on in Italy during those times as well as uncovering for the first time the villa. Had this moment in time not have been discovered there would have been many loose ends of history still yet to be connected. In present day time we are learning to capture our own moments in time through drawing. For Suzanne we had to go draw a specific building and capture the building in whichever way we wanted. Those drawings created a mood of what was occurring and gave insight on how to become a better rounded designer. If the composition was too close it did not show how the building was to be experienced. However, if the moment was captured with a more zoomed out look, the building read more easily. Capturing those buildings in time allows me to revisit them whenever I am stuck on a design and get inspired by them all over again.
Size is an important aspect of design. When drawing the Mossman building, I saw how the people interacted with the space and got a feel of how large the space was to an individual. Size impacts design in every way because people do not want to feel uncomfortable and jammed into a place. The bathes of the Diocletian can be a way of interpreting metric further besides that of a measuring tape or tool. The baths are all linked together by the technologically advanced system of water, but the people within the space and the different rooms separating one room from another is a different way of going about the word metric. The building was for an aray of different amenities besides that of bathing. The baths were free to the public and had theaters and gymnasiums and had “continual games and the pleasures of the baths served to divert the populace.” Roth (269). These baths created a system of diverse functions that separated each into a caldarium, tepidarium, and frigidarium, and yet were all connected by water. The people in the space verses how large the actual baths were created a measuring devise to go by. It could accommodate 3200 people at various times of day for men, women, and slaves. The people had to feel comfortable enough in the space so that they were not all packed into the baths. The distance between the classes and the actual people in space versus one another all had to be taken into account when designing the baths of the Diocletian. Thus, the word metric goes beyond that of a measuring tape. It can be used to describe a range of different scales; the scale of the governments rule, the space between people in the space, and the space dimensions itself.
Tuesday, February 24, 2009
Thursday, February 19, 2009
The Hotel is the largest in the world, but its most remarkable feature is that it sits on a manmade island of sand held in by friction. “Workers drilled steel piles into the seabed to support the massive building and armored the island with precast concrete "shed" units -- specially designed hollow blocks made to minimize the force of waves. Workers then filled the structure with sand dredged from an offshore seabed” (Dowdey, October) The building jetting out from the shore, had to be resistant to wind and many tests were done on the building to make sure that it was able to hold up to time. The Burj Al Arab, has amazed me ever since building went into effect in 1994. The way the rigid concrete and steel structure is united with a more delicate glass fibre fabric is so unique. The atrium is special in its own way as well by being the tallest in the world at 182 meters high. Additionally, the fabric is illuminated all hours to make the building glow and stand out even more in its open site.
The Burj Al Arab building reminds me of the wu-wu that has been discussed in class. It stands out from everything else in a wide open area. Furthermore, it is also wide and tall spanning out from the site making the eye go straight up in wonder and delight at the building. It celebrates its iconic look while being a seven star rated Hotel in Dubai.
Atkins Global. (n.d.). Burj Al Arab. Retrieved 2009 18th, February, from Tom Wright : http://www.tomwrightdesign.com/web/burj_al_arab.php
Dowdey, S. (October, 01 2007). How the Dubai Seven-Star Hotel Works . Retrieved February 17, 2009, from How Stuff Works.com: http://adventure.howstuffworks.com/dubai3.htm
WS ATKINS CONSULTANTS LTD. (2006). JUMEIRAH BEACH RESORT. Retrieved February 18th, 2009, from Burj Al Arab: http://www.tomwrightdesign.com/PageLibraryAssets/Jbrpress.pdf?61
Wednesday, February 18, 2009
The archetype is the main source that a product or an idea is derived from. When beginning there has to be something that one can go back to and receive inspiration from. The prototypes are then derived around that product. The temple is an example of an Archetype/Prototype/Hybrid. The temple started about “1050 B.C.E., a wooden structure with upright columns completely in the central chamber… It is believed that the temple, with its surrounding colonnade was an attempt to recreate the sacred grove.” (Roth 231) The Greeks took the archetype from nature the groves that they used for sacrifice to the gods. They then built the temple of Hera I out of wood, and slowly over time reconstructed with all stone. The temple of Hera I is the prototype of the ideal Doric temple column. The Greeks put one row of columns in the middle and rows on the outside. Hera II was the next temple that used the Doric columns. This one spread out the columns into two rows instead of just one row in the middle. That temple was the prototype for the Temple of Athena or the Parthenon. The Greeks took out the row from the middle and moved them just to the porch of the temple. The building was made out of white marble and used Doric columns on the outside and Ionic columns on the inside. The Roman Temple “Based on Etruscan prototypes, was similar to the Greek temple and eventually was embellished with Greek orders and architectural details” (Roth 250). The Romans changed the temple to fit their needs and was on an axis instead of just made into the land. Furthermore, instead of it being able to be viewed from all sides it was viewed from only the front. All these elements make the Roman temple a Hybrid of the past and present. All the architecture in US Legislature is a hybrid of the past and present.